On 8th March 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, the battle of Guadalajara began with an offensive by the Italian Corpo di Truppe Volontarie (CTV) and Nationalist forces to encircle the Spanish capital, Madrid. Hampered by poor conditions, the 50,000 strong offensive was countered by Republican forces who brought forward an additional 25,000 men (to a total of 35,000) to repel the attack. Republican counter-attacks occurred between 12th-15th March and again between 18th-22nd, recapturing territory as the Italians eventually began to retreat. The battle concluded with a Republican victory which acted a major boost in morale for the Republican cause.
In the below photograph, taken in March 1937, Nationalist forces are pictured at Guadalajara.
Attribution: Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-2006-1204-514 / Studnitz, von H.G. / CC-BY-SA
To read more about the battle and the Spanish Civil War more broadly, take a look at Alejandro de Quesada's two part series, The Spanish Civil War 1936–39 which focuses on the opposing Nationalist and Republican forces throughout the conflict.
Our 500th Men-at-Arms title, The Armies of Castile and Aragon Armies of Castile and Aragon 1370–1516 by John Pohl, is released next month so pre-order your copy today!!